Understanding the Concept of a Line of Credit
A line of credit in Canada is a popular financial tool that provides you with the liberty to borrow money up to a predetermined limit. Think of it as a flexible loan arrangement that does not restrict you to use the funds for a specific purpose. You can choose to use as little or as much of the funds as you desire, up to the allocated maximum limit.
The uniqueness of this tool lies in its repayment structure. You can reimburse the borrowed money at any given time without any penalties. The interest is only payable on the amount you borrow, not on the total credit limit.
Note: Certain lines of credit might involve fees such as registration or administration charges. It is advisable to inquire about any associated fees with your lending institution before availing the line of credit.
Interest Rates and Line of Credit
Typically, the interest rate associated with a line of credit is variable, meaning it can fluctuate over time. The interest is charged from the day you withdraw money until you pay back the full balance.
Your credit score plays a pivotal role in determining the interest you’ll pay on a line of credit. It helps lenders assess the level of risk involved in lending you money. Generally, a higher credit score results in a lower interest rate on your line of credit.
Accessing Funds from a Line of Credit
Accessing funds from your line of credit can be done in various ways:
- Write a cheque drawn on your line of credit.
- Use an Automated Teller Machine (ATM).
- Utilize telephone or online banking for bill payments.
- Transfer money to your chequing account through telephone or online banking.
Reimbursing the Line of Credit
Every month, you receive a statement displaying the outstanding amount on your line of credit. You are required to make a minimum payment each month, usually equivalent to the monthly interest. However, remember that paying only the interest implies that you’ll never clear the principal debt you owe.
Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Line of Credit
Before you decide to avail a line of credit, it is important to weigh the advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages of a Line of Credit
- Comparatively lower interest rates than credit cards or personal loans.
- Depending on the product and financial institution, you may not be charged setup or annual administration fees.
- You can avoid unnecessary fees if your bank allows the transfer of any overdraft on your chequing account to your line of credit.
Disadvantages of a Line of Credit
- Easy access to funds may lead to overspending and financial distress if not managed properly.
- If interest rates rise, you may face difficulties in repaying your line of credit.
Choosing the Most Suitable Line of Credit
You can opt for either a secured or unsecured line of credit. It is crucial to ensure that the chosen line of credit aligns with your financial needs.
Secured Line of Credit
A secured line of credit involves using an asset (like your car or home) as collateral. If you fail to repay your debt, the lender can take possession of that asset. The advantage is that you can get a lower interest rate than with an unsecured line of credit.
Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC)
A type of secured credit where your house acts as collateral. It usually offers a higher credit limit and lower interest rate than other types of loans and lines of credit.
Unsecured Lines of Credit
An unsecured line of credit doesn’t involve any of your assets as collateral. Some examples include personal lines of credit and student lines of credit.
Personal Line of Credit
This type of line of credit can be utilized for unexpected expenses or consolidating higher interest rate loans. Its interest rates are generally lower than those for credit cards and personal loans.
Student Line of Credit
Specifically designed for funding post-secondary education, a student line of credit can be used to cover basic expenses like tuition, books, and housing.
Secured vs. Unsecured Lines of Credit
A line of credit can be either secured or unsecured.
A secured line of credit is backed by collateral, such as a house. This collateral offers security to the lender and generally results in a lower interest rate than an unsecured line of credit. However, if you default on your payments, the bank can seize the asset that secures the line of credit.
An unsecured line of credit does not require any collateral. As a result, these lines of credit can be more challenging to qualify for and will typically have a higher interest rate.
Interest Rates on Line of Credit in Canada
The interest on a line of credit is variable, which means it fluctuates with the prevailing interest rates. This interest rate is expressed as the lender’s prime rate, based on the policy interest rate set by the Bank of Canada, plus a percentage.
Secured lines of credit typically have the best interest rates, such as prime + 1%. So if the lender’s prime rate is 3%, for example, your line of credit interest rate will be prime + 1% which comes to 4%. But if the lender’s prime rate increases to 4.5%, your rate will increase to 5.5%.
Unsecured lines of credit work similarly, except with higher interest rates. The rate you are offered will depend on certain financial criteria, such as income, personal assets, and credit score. If you have a long history with a particular financial institution, you may be able to negotiate a lower interest rate on your unsecured line of credit.
Applying for a Line of Credit
Lines of credit are commonly available at banks, credit unions, and other financial institutions, including online-only banks. You can typically apply for a line of credit online, over the phone, or in person.
During the approval process, the lender will consider criteria like:
- Household income: A minimum annual income of $35,000 to $50,000 is often required to be considered for a line of credit. Employment history will also be a factor, as income stability can affect your ability to make payments.
- Assets and/or liabilities: These factors help the lender evaluate your financial security and ability to repay the line of credit.
- Credit score and credit history: The better these are, the more favorable your terms and interest rate are likely to be.
In the case of secured or student lines of credit, additional criteria such as a home appraisal or proof of admission will be required.
How much can you borrow with a line of credit?
Unsecured lines of credit tend to start at $5,000. The exact amount you’re approved to borrow depends on the lender’s review of your personal financial information.
Other lines of credit may require you to pay the registration or administration charges, and monthly or annual fees.
Pros and Cons of a Line of Credit
- Interest rates tend to be lower than those of credit cards or personal loans.
- Flexible repayment structures allow you to pay down your line of credit as swiftly or steadily as you wish.
- Only pay interest on the amount you borrow.
- Your bank may allow you to transfer overdrafts to your line of credit, so you can avoid overdraft fees.
- Access and repay your line of credit easily through online banking or even through ATMs if you link it to your debit card.
- Easy access to funds could lead to overspending and a cycle of debt.
- Carrying a large outstanding balance could hurt your credit score.
- Variable interest rates could lead to larger payments and additional overall interest being charged on your debt.
- If you fail to make payment on your secured line of credit, you could risk losing the collateral, which could be your home.
Alternatives to a Line of Credit
Unsecured line of credit alternatives
- Personal loans: A one-time fixed loan amount with a fixed payment schedule.
- Credit cards: A revolving credit option, but with much higher interest rates. Additionally, if you need cash, a credit card cash advance entails extra fees and interest charges.
Secured line of credit alternatives
If you own a home and are willing to use it as collateral, options for extracting equity include:
Cash-out refinance: With this type of mortgage refinance, you can borrow up to 80% of the appraised value of your home, minus the amount left on your existing mortgage and any other loans against the house.
Second mortgage: Whereas a cash-out refinance increases your primary mortgage amount, a second mortgage is taken on in addition to your primary mortgage. This is appealing if interest rates have gone up and your original mortgage has a low fixed rate that you want to keep locked in.
Reverse mortgage: Homeowners age 55 and older who wish to stay in their home and live on the equity without making loan payments may be interested in this financing option. A reverse mortgage comes due in full when you sell or move, or the last borrower dies. You can borrow up to 55% of the home’s value, although interest rates will be higher than the above options.
In conclusion, a line of credit in Canada can be a useful tool if used responsibly. It provides flexibility and easy access to funds when needed. However, it is important to understand the associated costs, risks, and repayment obligations to ensure it aligns with your financial goals. Always consult with a financial advisor or your lending institution before making a decision.